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 Arthritis and the viscosity of b

Arthritis and the viscosity of blood.


On page http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=7981439&dopt=Abstract is written:

Native blood viscosity, corrected blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and red cell aggregation were all significantly higher and hematocrit significantly lower in rheumatoid arthritispatients than in controls.

On page http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=1455379&dopt=Abstract  is written:
It is assumed that RBCD (red blood cell deformability) disturbance is one of the most leading signs in the development of high blood viscosity in RA (rheumatoid arthritis) patients.

On page http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=3662650 is written:
The viscosity of plasma (PV) was investigated in 27 outpatients with classical or definite rheumatoid arthritis (RA) according to the American Rheumatism Association (ARA) criteria. The measurements showed a significantly raised PV in patients with RA (p less than 10(-5)) compared with a control group.

On page  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=14967878&query_hl=7&itool=pubmed_DocSum  is written:
CONCLUSION: our results support the hypothesis that in RA, blood hyperviscosity is determined by deformability loss, which in turn is due to a membrane rigidization. This could evidenced that a widespread cell membrane damage is expressed through an impaired erythrocyte deformability, turning haemorheological parameters into reliable tools to study disease evolution. The follow-up study enabled us to confirm that erythrocyte deformability is an efficient indicator of rheumatoid arthritis activity.

On page http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=1784946&query_hl=7&itool=pubmed_DocSum is written:
Plasma viscosity (Pv), and that of an erythrocyte suspension in isotonic saline solution (called erythrocyte viscosity--Ev) were determined by means of a viscosimeter of personal construction. The Ev/Pv ratio, called relative erythrocyte viscosity (Rv), was then calculated. The measurements were performed in flow conditions similar to the physiologic ones. An analysis of the variations of these parameters in different internal diseases has revealed high Pv values in the pathologic states associated with dysproteinemia. Pv correlates with the ESR but not with the hematocrit. Ev levels were increased in many diseases and did not correlate with any of the current laboratory parameters. Ev might be a prognostic factor for the arterial hypertension evolution. Rv analysis suggests a possible dynamic balance between Pv and Ev.

On page http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=2377863&query_hl=7&itool=pubmed_DocSum  is written:
A rise in blood viscosity with low rates of the shift which hinders the blood flow in minor vessels was revealed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Hemorheological disorders are closely connected with clinical features of RA. Thus, a rise in blood viscosity, enhancement of the aggregation activity of erythrocytes and thrombocytes were most marked in patients with systemic manifestations and high laboratory activity. When investigating the system of hemostasis in patients with RA accompanied by systemic manifestations, the authors noted a tendency to blood hypercoagulation which closely correlated with the rise in blood viscosity. The degree of markedness of hemorheological disorders in RA depends on immunological shifts. Hyperviscosity of the blood in patients with systemic manifestations was considerably attributable to the presence in the blood of pathological immune complexes with a sedimentation constant of 10S-18S, 22S or their combinations. Thus, hemorheological disorders and blood viscosity as the main indices represent an important link of RA pathogenesis closely associated with the autoimmune and immune complex processes determining the development of vasculitis and progress of RA.

On page http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=1183827&query_hl=7&itool=pubmed_DocSum  is written:
Plasma viscosity has been measured by a standardised technique in an unselected series of elderly subjects. Results have been grouped according to the severity of clinical disease and are found to give a good statistical differentiation between most groups, although with a wide overlap. Repeated tests show only a fair correlation with the course of an individual patient's illness. These results are compared with those previously reported. In general, values are lower in elderly than in younger subjects with diesease of comparable clinical severity. "Normal' values are, however, slightly higher in the elderly. Further studies are planned to analyse apparently anomalous results in an attempt to determine more exactly the clinical value of plasma viscosity estimation in the elderly.

Membrane rigidization

On page  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1483829 is written: 

Whether effects on the fluidity of the mitochondrial inner membrane [208] reflect such a property is uncertain, since these experiments were performed under oxidative stress, which leads to membrane rigidization.

On page  http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=15460425  is written:

Résumé / Abstract

Objective: To investigate if blood hyperviscosity in RA patients is due to a reduced erythrocyte deformability and, therefore, turning it into a reliable activity indicator, as well as a therapy follow-up marker for this pathology. Methods: (1) The haemorheological profile consisting of erythrocyte deformability, blood and plasma viscosity, and erythrocyte membrane fluidity was determined in 24 AR patients and 17 healthy controls. (2) A 4 year follow-up was carried on in 16 patients monitoring blood viscosity, erythrocyte deformability and biochemical variables in relation to clinical assessment of disease activity (Disease Activity Score "DAS 28-4"). Results: Erythrocyte deformability and membrane fluidity were impaired in RA patients compared to controls (p < 0.001). Blood viscosity was significantly increased and correlated with the cell rigidity index (r = 0.85, p < 0.0000) in RA patients. The follow-up showed a good correlation between haemorheological parameters and DAS 28-4 during disease evolution. Conclusion: our results support the hypothesis that in RA, blood hyperviscosity is determined by deformability loss, which in turn is due to a membrane rigidization. This could evidenced that a widespread cell membrane damage is expressed through an impaired erythrocyte deformability, turning haemorheological parameters into reliable tools to study disease evolution. The follow-up study enabled us to confirm that erythrocyte deformability is an efficient indicator of rheumatoid arthritis activity.

On page  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=3630535&dopt=Citation  is written:

The degree of random orientation of excited diphenylhexatriene molecules in isolated erythrocyte membrane ghosts was investigated in order to determine the possible effect of lipid disorders on membrane structure in children suffering from type I diabetes mellitus with and without diabetic retinopathic lesions. A decrease of cholesterol in the antiatherogenic fraction HDL (1.17 +/- 0.06 in retinopathy vs 1.24 +/- 0.065 in controls) and its increase in atherogenic LDL fraction (3.88 +/- 0.23 vs 2.63 +/- 0.26) as well as developing erythrocyte membrane rigidization in diabetes and retinopathy (0.193 +/- 0.008 and 0.204 +/- 0.014 vs 0.161 +/- 0.008 in controls) were observed. Considerable fluctuations in plasma and membrane cholesterol:phospholipid ratio were most pronounced in subjects exhibiting diabetic background retinopathy. The content of membrane cholesterol compared significantly with both membrane fluidity (r = 0.677), cholesterol of LDL (r = 0.667) and cholesterol:phospholipid ratio in HDL (r = 0.693) which suggests a destructive effect of lipid disorders on cell membrane structure in diabetics.


Lipid disorders

On page http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15078639 is written:

National Clinical Research and Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA. jmckenney@ncrinc.net

Therapy with niacin (nicotinic acid) is unique in that it improves all lipoprotein abnormalities. It significantly reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoprotein(a) levels, while increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. This makes niacin ideal for treating a wide variety of lipid disorders, including the metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, isolated low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and hypertriglyceridemia. Niacin-induced changes in serum lipid levels produce significant improvements in both coronary artery disease and clinical outcomes. Niacin is currently available in 3 formulations (immediate release, extended release, and long acting), which differ significantly with respect to their safety and efficacy profiles. Immediate-release niacin is generally taken 3 times a day and is associated with adverse flushing, gastrointestinal symptoms, and elevations in blood glucose levels. Long-acting niacin can be taken once daily and is associated with significantly reduced flushing, but its metabolism increases the risk of hepatotoxic effects. Extended-release niacin, also given once daily, has an absorption rate intermediate between the other formulations and is associated with fewer flushing and gastrointestinal symptoms without increasing hepatotoxic risk.


Oxidative stress

Click on AA oxidopathy on page: http://www.jintmed.com/  or go directly to the first page of that subject at: http://www.jintmed.com/AA%20Oxidopathy%20J%20Int%20Med%201997%201%207%20112.htm